Health Library

University of Colorado Urogynecology specializes in female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery. As one of the largest urogynecology and reconstructive surgery practices in Colorado, our comprehensive knowledge base ranges from non-surgical methods of treating pelvic floor disorders to advanced robotic surgery to restore our patients’ quality of life.In addition to working with our doctors and staff, we encourage you to explore the medical information resources found on this website. Browse our Health Library below for information about urogynecology conditions, as well as causes, symptoms and treatment options.

Bowel Incontinence

Bowel incontinence is a loss of control over bowel movements, occuring more often in women. Learn about symptoms, causes and how Urogynecologists treat it.


Colporrhaphy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure to repair pelvic organ prolapse such as cystocele (prolapsed bladder) or rectocele (prolapsed rectum). Learn more about treatment options and risks.


A fistula is a tube-like connection or hole that forms between two organs. Fistulas are preventable and treatable. In women, a fistula can occur as a result of prolonged childbirth, connecting the bladder and vagina, or the rectum and vagina.

How and Why to Do Kegels

Kegels are pelvic floor exercises that can prevent, improve and cure conditions like urinary incontinence. Learn Kegel basics for better pelvic health.

InterStim Therapy

InterStim is a surgical implant used to treat bladder incontinence and overactive bladder recommended to decrease symptoms for many urogynecology patients.

Menopause & Prolapse

Changes in a woman’s pelvic floor function during menopause can lead to pelvic organ prolapse, in which one or more organs drops out of place.

Menopause & Urinary Symptoms

Changes in a woman’s urinary function often accompany menopause due to hormones, causing symptoms like frequent urination. See postmenopausal treatments.

Pelvic Disorders & Sexual Dysfunction

Women with pelvic disorders may experience aspects of sexual dysfunction. Treatments exist for patients with pelvic organ prolapse or urinary incontinence.

Pelvic Floor Disorders (PFD)

Pelvic floor disorders (PFD) are a broad range of conditions affecting a woman’s pelvic organs including prolapse, incontinence and pain disorders.

Pelvic Floor Therapy

Pelvic floor therapy can be used to address urination problems, incontinence & overactive bladder by strengthening muscles with non-surgical intervention.

Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)

Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is caused by several factors of organs falling, affecting older women who experience discomfort and other symptoms as a result.


A pessary is a nonsurgical alternative treatment for urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Pessaries are becoming increasingly popular, as the population continues to age and women are more commonly being seen for pelvic floor disorders.

Transvaginal Mesh Removal

Women with transvaginal mesh from pelvic organ prolapse may experience complications. Removal is a procedure done by a Urogynecologist for treatment.

Urinary Incontinence

Urinary incontinence, known as overactive bladder, is often caused by pregnancy, can also include stress incontinence. See symptoms, causes and treatments.

Urination Problems

Urination problems can include urinary incontinence, caused by UTIs, prolapsed bladders, pregnancy and menopause. Treatments depend on the underlying cause.